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Ano-genital distance in healthy Nigerian full-term newborn infants


A. N. Onyiriuka ,

University of Benin Teaching Hospital, PMB 1111, Benin City, NG
About A. N.
Endocrine, Metabolic and Genetic Unit, Department of Child Health
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J. B. E. Elusiyan

Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospital, Ile Ife, NG
About J. B. E.
Endocrine and Metabolic Unit, Department of Paediatrics and Child Health
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Background/Aim: In humans, anogenital distance (AGD) appears to provide a reliable guide to androgen exposure during fetal life. The aim of the present study is to determine the normal values for AGD in Nigerian newborns of both genders and to determine its association with birth weight and length.


Methods: For this descriptive cross-sectional study, 895 (448 males and 447 females) healthy full-term (37 to 42 weeks’ gestation) infants between the age of 6 to 72 hours delivered in two Nigerian hospitals were recruited for this evaluation. A standardized anthropometric protocol was used to measure AGD, ano-scrotal distance (ASD) and ano-fourchette distance (AFD). The birth weight and the length of all the subjects were also measured and recorded.


Results: There was a total of 895 (448 males and 447 females) subjects for the study. The mean birth weights were 3288±472g (95% CI = 3244 - 3332) and 3125±552g (95% CI= 3074 - 3176) for male and female infants, respectively; p < 0.01. The mean AGDs (±SD) at birth were 28.3±3.9 mm (95% CI = 27.9 - 28.7) in males and 15.2±2.4 mm (95% CI= 15.0 - 15.4) in females; p < 0.001. The ratio of the male-to-female ano-genital distance (ASD/AFD) was 1.7. The adjusted AGD [AGDASD / birth weight (mm/kg)] and [AGDAFD / birth weight (mm/kg)] was 8.7 and 4.9 for male and female newborn infants, respectively.


Conclusion: The results of this study provide reliable normative values that can be used as a standard with regard to AGD in Nigerian male and female newborns at birth.
How to Cite: Onyiriuka, A.N. and Elusiyan, J.B.E., 2016. Ano-genital distance in healthy Nigerian full-term newborn infants. Sri Lanka Journal of Diabetes Endocrinology and Metabolism, 6(2), pp.35–39. DOI:
Published on 29 Aug 2016.
Peer Reviewed


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